Today I will talk about the thyroid gland and its disorders. Because now a days thyroid disorders are very common. According to a survey almost 1 of 4 people is infected from thyroid disorder. So let us talk about thyroid gland and thyroid disorders today.
What is Thyroid gland?
It is an endocrine gland present in our body.
Location Of thyroid gland –
Thyroid gland is situated on the upper part of trachea in our body.
Hormones secreted by thyroid gland –
It mainly secretes 3 hormones that are :
- T3 (Triiodothyronine)
- T4 (Thyroxine or Tetraiodothyronine)
- Calcitonin 7
Secretion of thyroid hormones is regulated by a hormone, TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) released from anterior lobe of pituitary.
Thyroid disorders are caused by increase or decrease in these hormonal secretions. Any increase in these hormonal secretions of thyroid are considered to be Hyperthyroidism and decrease in their secretions, is considered as Hypothyroidism.
Normal ranges of these 3 hormones –
Hormone name Normal range
- T3 or triiodothyronine 60-200
- T4 or thyroxine 4.5- 12
- TSH or Thyroid stimulating hormone 0.3 – 5.5
It will depend on concentrations of T3 or T4 that one is having hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. For example in many cases, there is normal concentration or less concentration of T3 or T4 but high concentration of TSH , then this will be considered as hypothyroidism. Means all it depends upon the value of T3 and T4.
Thyroid disorders –
Thyroid disorders are caused due to less or high concentrations of thyroid hormones, called hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism respectively.
1. Hypothyroidism –
This is a condition characterized by having low value of thyroid hormones than the normal range. It is also called underactive thyroid disorder. In this condition , your thyroid gland does not make enough hormones that meets the requirement of your body. As our thyroid gland is concerned with many metabolic processes, so in this stage metabolism of our body slows down. So people having hypothyroidism are mostly fat, as anything they eat will take time to digest or absorb in body than normal person. So that is why they feel sluggishness all the time as energy is not produced in them at the time. And whatever they eat starts accumulating in their body as fat or proteins.
Diseases under hypothyroidism –
It is a thyroid disorder characterized by low secretion of thyroid hormones in infants. person having cretinism is called a cretin. A cretin has markedly reduced metabolic rate and oxidation in body.
Symptoms of cretinism-
*Slow heart beat
*Low blood Pressure
*decrease in body temperature
*awkward body with pot belly
*retarded sexual development
Treatment of Cretinism –
Cretinism is treated by an early administration of thyroid hormones (Hormonotherapy).
b. Hashimoto’s disease –
It is another disease under hypothyroidism of thyroid disorders . It is a chronic disease and takes several of years to show its signs and symptoms.
Cause of Hashimoto disease-
It is an autoimmune disorder in which a person’s own body produce antibodies and damage thyroid gland. Damaged thyroid glands becomes unable to produce hormonal concentration that meets body requirements.
Symptoms of Hashimoto disease –
*Pale, dry skin
*A puffy face
*Enlargement of the tongue
*Unexplained weight gain
*Muscle aches, tenderness and stiffness
*Joint pain and stiffness
*Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)
Treatment of Hashimoto disease –
Drugs are given orally that have to consume orally for life.
c. Myxodema –
It is characterized by deficiency of thyroid hormones in adults and is more common in woman than man. It is actually a complication of hashimoto disease.
Symptoms of myxodema –
*Puffy appearance due to accumulation of fat in subcutaneous tissue.
*Lack of intelligence and initiative nature.
*Poor ventilation, slow heart beat, less blood pressure.
*Hair loss from scalp and eye
*Decreased oxygen consumption.
Treatment of myxodema-
Its treatment involves administration of thyroid hormones. Drugs are given orally that have to consume orally for life.
d. Iodine deficiency Goitre –
This is a under active thyroid disorder caused by deficiency of iodine in our diet.
Iodine is necessary for formation of hormones T3 and T4. If there will be less iodine in our diet, there will be lesser formation of thyroid hormones. So more over it also come under hypothyroidism .
Symptoms of exopthalmic goitre-
Enlargement of thyroid gland resulting in swelling in neck region.
Treatment of Goitre-
Taking more amount of iodine in diet and using iodinated salt in our diet.
2. Hyperthyroidism –
- Lady having hyperthyroidism [/caption]
It is a condition which is characterized by high value of thyroid hormones in our body. It is a condition in which thyroid gland produces high value of T3 and T4 hormones. As we know that thyroid hormones are concerned with metabolism of our body , so high value of these hormones will increase body metabolism. This increased metabolic rate will lead to formation and consumption of energy very fast. So people having hyperthyroidism seems to be very slim. Diseases under hyperthyroidism are:
a. Grave’s disease-
It is also called exopthalmic disease and is characterized by high amount of thyroid hormones in our body. It is an autoimmune disorder caused due to attack on thyroid gland by antibodies of individual’s own body. In this disease enlargement of thyroid gland takes place.
In this disease Excess of thyroid hormones increases metabolic rate and oxidation.This results in quick consumption of food, leaving nothing for storage, causing emaciation ( excessive leanness). Increased oxidation leads-
- Quick heart beat
- Rise in blood pressure
- Higher body temperature
- Bulging eyeballs (exopthalmous)
Treatment of Grave disease-
It involves removal of a part of the gland with radioactive iodine administration.
Other diseases of thyroid gland include thyroid cancer.
It is a rare cancer . Abnormal multiplication of thyroid cells cause thyroid cancer.
Cause of thyroid cancer-
it can be caused due to genetic transmissions or by too much exposure to radiations.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer –
Most common symptom is getting a lump or swelling in your neck.
pain in your neck and in ears sometimes.
* Trouble swallowing, difficulty in breathing.
*Hoarsening of voice
* Frequent Coughing
Treatment of Thyroid cancer-
It includes radioactive iodine therapy, surgery for removal of affected part of thyroid gland.
This is all about the thyroid gland and thyroid disorders. If you like this article share it on fb or whatsapp.