Guys , today I will tell you about most common disorder of not only India but of whole world that is diabetes. Diabetes is a condition in which patient’s trouble is increased. He has to think twice before doing anything or even before eating something. But do you know guys, even diabetes is of many types. Today I will tell you briefly every thing about this fatal disorder , its types and causes in a very brief and easy way by which you will come to understand types of diabetes , along with a brief information.
Guys this question is always in mind of many students that what is the difference between two types of diabetes.
These two types of diabetes are-
1 Diabetes Mellitus
2. Diabetes Inspidus
So now I will tell you about these two types of diabetes. Lets start with number 1 type of diabetes that is
Types of Diabetes : 1. Diabetes Mellitus –
Diabetes mellitus is caused due to dis functioning of insulin hormone. Insulin hormone is secreted from beta cells of pancreas . Main function of insulin is to convert blood glucose into glycogen.
This diabetes mellitus is also of two types that are –
a. Diabetes mellitus Type 1
b. Diabetes mellitus Type 2
So know let me tell you about both of them one by one and pointwise.
a. Diabetes mellitus Type 1 –
This type of diabetes mellitus is insulin dependent. As in this type of diabetes insulin formation does not take place due to damaged pancreas or any other reason by which pancreas become unable to secrete insulin.
This type of diabetes is caused due to malfunctioning or any change in genes. So it is a genetic disorder.
In this type of diabetes your pancreas is damaged due to autoimmune disorders and this damage to pancreas is because of the pancreas attack with antibodies of its own body. So in damaged state pancreas becomes unable to secrete insulin hormone and one gets affected with this fatal disorder. This condition is also caused by faulty beta cells of pancreas and their inability to produce and secrete insulin.
So without insulin there will be no conversion of glucose to glycogen that leads to a very high blood glucose level and ultimately diabetes. And as a result, we need to inject artificial made insulin through fatty tissue of our skin.
This artificial insulin is injected by following sources-
2. Insulin pen
3. Insulin pump
4. Jet injectors
out of these four jet injectors, inject insulin in our body via abdomen.
These insulin injections are given to the patient before an hour before a meal .
This was also called as Juvenile onset diabetes before because it start affecting person in childhood. So this was all about diabetes Mellitus Type 1. Now come to next one.
b. Diabetes Mellitus Type 2-
This type of diabetes is a long term metabolic disorder actually and also in this one there would be an increase in blood sugar level in the body But the main difference in between types of diabetes mellitus is that, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 is insulin dependent and Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is Insulin non dependent.
Now let me explain you that how this type is non insulin dependent-
Actually in this type of diabetes Insulin is formed by pancreas and beta cells and no damage is there to pancreas or no faulty beta cells are there but actually there is absence of insulin receptors in the body cells. As a result if there would be no insulin receptors, insulin can not enter the cell and will become unable to convert the blood glucose into glycogen. Ultimately there will be high glucose level in the blood leading to diabetes.
So moreover we can say that just the difference in between these two is that in Type 1 diabetes , no insulin is formed due to damaged pancreas or faulty beta cells and in Type 2 there is no insulin receptors. So ultimately both of these affect the carbohydrate metabolism of our body in a same way by increasing blood sugar level.
Now I will tell you about Diagnosis, Symptoms and of diabetes mellitus.
Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus-
Your doctor will recommend you to have A1C test. This is also called glycated haemoglobin test. This test actually measures your blood sugar level for past two to three months by measuring the sugar amount attached to haemoglobin present in our blood. Haemoglobin is respiratory and colour pigment present in human blood.
So by having this A1C test you will come to know that whether you are affected by diabetes mellitus or not.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus –
As they have a common effect on our body that is increase in blood sugar level, the symptoms of both of these also appears to be same.
Early symptoms of Diabetes mellitus –
These include Constant hunger , absence of energy , increased thirst , sudden weight loss , dryness or metallic taste in mouth , rashes or itchy skin , pain in eyes or not able to see anything clearly.
As time passes effect of this disease increases and it becomes much more fatal and show following symptoms –
These symptoms include Slow healing of any wound or cut on your body, yeast infections , pain in some organs of your body especially foot , Feeling numbness and lack of self confidence.
If you have two or more of these symptoms, you should concern your doctor. Without treatment, diabetes can become more fatal and can lead patient to die if not treated well or before time.
So this was all about the types of diabetes Mellitus , Type 1 and Type 2 along with their difference. Now next is the Diabetes Inspidus.
Types of diabetes : 2. Diabetes Inspidus-
This type of diabetes is different from the previous ones and this affects our body in a different way.
Cause of having Diabetes inspidus –
* The main cause of having diabetes inspidus is lack of a hormone called vasopressin in our body. This hormone is also called ADH hormone that is anti diuretic hormone and is released from pituitary gland of our body.
Actually this hormone is concerned with conservation of water in our body. And this hormone do this conservation of water by increasing reabsorption of water in the kidney nephrons by increasing permeability of water in collecting ducts and loop of henle.
If this hormone will not be there then of course as a result our kidney metabolism will be changed and that will cause in change in urination .
As a result no water conservation will take place and then there will be hyperurination that means more formation and release of diluted urine from our body.
* Other cause of having Diabetes inspidus can be having a poor kidney sometimes that is unable to respond to this chemical messenger vassopressin, as a result same process will occur and there would be more and more excretion of water from our body.
Symptoms of Diabetes inspidus-
The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus in early stages are:
Having Extreme thirst , Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine
Depending on the condition, urine output can also be increased to 15 litres a day a if you are drinking a lot of fluids , water , juices or whatever. Generally a healthy adult urinate about 1 – 1.8 liters a day but in diabetes inspidus it is increased to 15 litres a day.
Other signs may include get up at night to urinate and bed-wetting.
Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms:Unexplained fussiness, Having mood swings, More sleeping , Fever ,Vomiting , Diarrhea , Delayed growth ,Weight loss.
Now I will tell you about the diagnostic tests of diabetes inspidus-
1.Water deprivation test-
This test helps in detecting whether you are infected from diabetes inspidus along with its cause. In this test , you will be said to stop drinking fluids for several hours and at that time your urination or urine output will be checked along with the concentration of urine.
If you will urinate many times with a hypotonic and diluted urine you will may be diabetes inspidus positive patient.
It is based on the physical and chemical examination of urine. If your urine is less concentrated that means the amount of water is high relative to other excreted substances like urea, creatinine etc then it could be due to diabetes insipidus.
3.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-
An MRI of the head is a procedure that will show you pictures of your brain and brain tissues and this procedure is done under the effect of magnetic field. This test can be recommended by your doctor to see or observe the abnormalities in your brain or mainly in pituitary gland.
So that was all about the two types of diabetes : Diabetes inspidus and diabetes mellitus.
And I hope by this article you will come to understand the difference between all types of diabetes.
And now by reading this , i hope that you got the main difference between these two types of diabetes that Diabetes mellitus affects Carbohydrate metabolism of your body where as diabetes inspidus defects water balance regulation in your body.
So guys that’s all.
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